Dysmenorrhea is the medical term for painful menstruation characterized by dull, throbbing, cramping pains in the lower abdomen.


During menstruation, prostaglandins are released to cause uterine muscle contractions, which help to expel the uterine lining. Higher levels of prostaglandins are associated with more severe menstrual cramps. Menstrual cramps may be caused by unidentified problems such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease, and cervical stenosis.

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